Posted 13 September 2010 - 07:50 PM
'n Lys van Medisinale Plante, wat sal help vir ieder en elke kwaal: (Gekry by 'n plantekenner en "herbalist")
1) Alepidae amatymbica - iquili (Xhosa); ikhatazo (Zoeloe)
2) Aloe Ferox
3) Aloe Arborescens - umhlaba
4) Artimisia Afra - umhlonyane - Wildeals
5) Balotta Africana - isinazi
6) Bulbine Frutescens - ithethe elimpofu
7) Bulbine Natalensis
8) Carpobrotus edulis - ikhambilamabulawo (suurvygie)
9) Clematis Brachiata - umdlonso
10) Dodonaea angustifolia - mutzuwe
11) Elephantorrhiza Elephantina - intolwana
12) Geranium incarnum - carpet geranium
13) Gunnera perpensa - ugobho , thangazaan
14) Helichrysum Petiolare - imphepho
15) Hypoxis species: African Patato, Ilabatheca (covered with stalks)
Inkomfe (multiple heads)
16) Leonotis leonorus - umfineaficane (wilde dagga)
17) Melianthus Comosus / Melianthus Major (Kruidjie-roer-my-nie)
18) Pentanisia prunelloides - icimamlilo
19) Psoralea Pinnata - umhbnitshwa
20) Withania somnifera - ubuvumba
21) Tetradenia Riparia (Watersalie / gemmerbos)
22) Chironia Baccifera - Aambeibossie
Let asb. op dat ek nog nie genoeg tyd gehad het om deur ierder en elke een te werk nie, maar kan jou verseker dat ek wel van die plante aangeskaf het en self gebruik het. Dit werk!
Meeste van hierdie plante kan elke een keer 'n jaar by Kirstenbosch Botaniese Tuine gekoop word teen spot goedkoop, op hul uitverkoping.
Maar eerder baie baie vroeg gaan en 'n trollie of krat saamneem met iemand wat kan help dra, want die staanplekke vir motors is baie min en baie ver.
Daar is selfs handboeke by die boonste gedeelte van die Botaniese tuine beskikbaar, maar bietjie duur.
Dit sal dalk help indien iemand deur hierdie lysie kan werk. Van my eie "research" stuur ek vir jou omdat ek nie 'n "prentjie" voorbeeld van die plante het nie en ook nie geld het om die geillustreerde boekke te kan bekostig nie. So het 'n alternatief gebruik, waarby ek my eie boek of leer kan probeer maak.
Bewaar asb. die getikte lysie. Dit is goud werd.
Posted 04 December 2010 - 05:56 PM
Common names: larger tinsel flower (Eng.); kalmoes (Afr.); Iqwili (Xhosa); ikhathazo (Zulu)
This would be a dream plant for every herbalist to have near at hand, as it is an important component of the healer's pharmacy.
Alepidea amatymbica is a robust, erect plant, up to 2 m tall in grassland; the leaves form a loose rosette with the flower spike rising above the surrounding grasses. The margins of the leaves are prominently toothed, each tooth ending in a bristle. The inflorescence is widely branched, with a number of small, star-shaped, white flowers, ± 250 mm in diameter.
Because it is an important component of the grasslands, which are subjected to regular burning, it regenerates from well-developed underground stems, which are able to survive the heat of a grass fire.
It is common in the summer rainfall grasslands of southern Africa, and extends up the east coast as far as Zimbabwe, and northwards into Kenya and Ethiopia. There are about 28 species of Alepidea and most occur in southern Africa. Alepidea amatymbica is divided into three subspecies.
Used generally in traditional medicine to treat colds, coughs, rheumatism, wounds, and to wash divining bones. I have personally seen marijuana (dagga) smokers mixing it in their cigarettes and it is said that it takes away the smell of the herb.
Growing Alepidea amatymbica
This plant is best grown from fresh seed sown in trays filled with a very well-drained seedling mix in late summer or early spring. Once sown, the seed should be lightly covered and kept watered until germination takes place. The seedlings are very prone to damping off and so watering should be carefully monitored. Once potted into individual pots, the plants need to be grown until the underground stem develops, after which they can be planted out.
Posted 04 December 2010 - 06:00 PM
Common Names:Bitter Aloe, Red Aloe (English); Bitteraalwyn, Bergaalwyn (Afrikaans); iNhlaba (Zulu); iKhala (Xhosa)
An attractive form of Aloe ferox is found in Kwazulu-Natal, particularly between the midlands and the coast in the Umkomaas and Umlaas river catchment areas. This used to be known as A. candelabrum and has subsequently been included in the species.
The bitter aloe will reach 2-3 metres in height with the leaves arranged in a rosette. The old leaves remain after they have dried, forming a "petticoat" on the stem. The leaves are a dull green, sometimes with a slightly blue look to them. They may also have a reddish tinge. The "A. candelabrum form" has an elegant shape with the leaf tips curving slightly downwards. The spines along the leaf edge are reddish in colour. Spines may also be present on upper and lower surfaces of the leaves as well. Young plants tend to be very spiny.
The flowers are carried in a large candelabra-like flower-head. There are usually between five and eight branches, each carrying a spike-like head of many flowers. Flower colour varies from yellowy-orange to bright red. "A. candelabrum" has six to twelve branches and the flowers have their inner petals tipped with white.
Flowering occurs between May and August, but in colder parts of the country this may be delayed until September. This aloe forms a beautiful display and attracts many bird species such as sunbirds, weavers, glossy starlings and mousebirds. Insects also visit the flowers which in turn brings yet more birds to your garden. In natural areas, monkeys and baboons will raid the aloes for nectar. Visitors usually leave adorned with large patches of pollen, often causing confusion amongst birdwatchers! It is an excellent garden specimen plant and is adaptable to many conditions.
Distribution and Habitat
It is a tall single stemmed aloe which has a wide distribution, ranging over 1000 km from the south western Cape through to southern Kwazulu-Natal. It is also found in the south eastern corner of the Free State and southern Lesotho.
It occurs in a broad range of habitats as a result of the wide distribution range. It is common on rocky hill slopes, often in very large numbers where it creates a stunning winter display. In the south western Cape it grows in grassy fynbos and in the southern and Eastern Cape it may also be found on the edges of the karoo. Aloe ferox grows both in the open and in bushy areas. The plants may also differ physically from area to area due to local conditions - a south east Free State winter is quite different to that of the Eastern Cape coast!
Derivation of Name
Aloe - derived from the Greek word for the dried juice of aloe leaves. Ferox - "fierce" or "war-like" referring to the spiny edged leaves.
Uses and Cultural aspects
The bitter aloe is most famous for its medicinal qualities. In parts of South Africa, the bitter yellow juice found just below the skin has been harvested as a renewable resource for two hundred years. The hard, black, resinous product is known as Cape aloes or aloe lump and is used mainly for its laxative properties but is also taken for arthritis."Schwedenbitters" which is found in many pharmacies contains bitter aloe. The gel-like flesh from the inside of the leaves is used in cosmetic products and is reported to have wound healing properties. Interestingly Aloe ferox, along with Aloe broomii, is depicted in a rock painting which was painted over 250 years ago.
Growing Aloe ferox
The bitter aloe may be grown from seed. Be aware that aloes will hybridise with any other aloe flowering at the same time. Sow seed in a well drained medium in shallow trays and cover lightly with sand or the seed will blow away. Once the seeds begin to germinate, keep moist but watch out for overwatering as the seedlings could rot. Transplant into small pots or bags once they are about 4cm high (approximately 6 months).
References and Further Reading
Bornman, H & Hardy D.S. 1971. Aloes of the South African Veld. Voortrekkerpers, Johannesburg.
Glen, H.F. & Hardy.D.S. 2000. Aloaceae (First Part): Aloe. Flora of Southern Africa 5(1,1). National Botanical Institute, Pretoria
Jackson, W.P.U. 1990. Origins and Meanings of Names of South African Plant Genera. Ecolab, University of Cape Town.
Jeppe, B. 1969. South African Aloes. Purnell, Cape Town.
Pooley, E. 1994. The Complete Field Guide to Trees of Natal, Zululand and Transkei. Natal Flora Publications Trust, Durban.
Reynolds, G.W. 1982. The Aloes of South Africa. A.A. Balkema, Cape Town.
Van Wyk, B-E & Smith, G. 1996. Guide to the Aloes of South Africa. Briza Publications, Pretoria.
Van Wyk, B-E, van Oudtshoorn, B & Gericke, N. 1997. Medicinal Plants of South Africa. Briza Publications, Pretoria.
Posted 04 December 2010 - 06:05 PM
Family: Asphodelaceae (asphodel family)
Common names: krantz aloe (English), kransaalwyn (Afrikaans), ikalene (Xhosa), inkalane or umhlabana (Zulu)
The krantz aloe is a valuable garden asset, it has large beautiful flowers, attractive foliage, decorative form, and it is easy to grow. It is also a 'must-have' for anyone wanting to stock their herb gardens with indigenous healing plants.
The krantz aloe develops into a multiheaded shrub 2 -3m high with striking grey green leaves arranged in attractive rosettes. The leaf margins are armed with conspicuous pale teeth.
The large colourful flower spikes are borne in profusion during the cold winter months (May-July), brightening up a drab winter garden. Deep orange is the most common colour, but there are also pure yellow forms, and an unusual bi-coloured form of deep orange (almost red) and yellow. The inflorescence is usually unbranched, with two to several arising from a single rosette. As with all the aloes, the flowers produce nectar and are attractive to many kinds of birds, in particular the small and colourful sunbirds, which flit from flower to flower in search of nectar. The flowers also attract bees.
The species formerly known as Aloe mutabilis is now regarded as a synonym of Aloe arborescens. It is a cliff dwelling form with smaller, less branched rosettes and red & yellow bi-coloured flower spikes and is more evident on the high inland plateau of the northern provinces of South Africa. This cliff dwelling form of Aloe arborescens can be seen hanging from the cliffs alongside the waterfall at the Witwatersrand National Botanical Garden.
Although it is in fact a large much-branched shrub, Aloe arborescens has been allocated a national tree number (28.1).
This species is distributed mainly over the eastern, summer rainfall areas of the country. It has the third widest distribution of any aloe, occurring from the Cape Peninsula along the eastern coast, through KwaZulu-Natal, Mpumalanga and Limpopo province and further north into Mozambique, Zimbabwe and Malawi. It is one of the few aloes that can be found growing at sea level right up to the tops of mountains. The krantz aloe is adapted to many habitats, but is usually found in mountainous areas where it favours exposed ridges and rocky outcrops. It is also found in dense bush.
Derivation of the name & historical aspects
The name aloe is from the Greek alsos and refers to the bitter juice from the leaves of these plants. It is probably derived from the earlier Arabic word alloeh or the Hebrew word allal, both meaning bitter. The Latin word arborescens means tree-forming or tree-like, and is a bit misleading in that this aloe is not really tree-like, but the name was originally applied to this species in reference to the stem-forming habit. The common name krantz aloe refers to its habitat, a krantz being a rocky ridge or cliff.
Aloe arborescens is one of approximately 130 Aloe species native to southern Africa. It is possibly the most widely cultivated aloe in the world and can be seen grown in gardens in many cities around the world. It was one of the first South African aloes collected and planted in the Company's Garden in Cape Town. It was grown in Amsterdam by Professor Commelin in 1674, and featured in Hort. Amst. 2 in 1701.
Uses and cultural aspects
In many parts of South Africa Aloe arborescens is planted around kraals (domestic stock enclosures) as a living fence. It often happens that the position of old kraals can still be seen many years after they have been abandoned because the aloes persist. Cuttings intended for use as barrier plants are sold in muthi shops.
The Zulu people use the leaves of this plant, dried and pounded into a powder, as a protection against storms. Decoctions of the leaves are also used in childbirth and in treating sick calves. In the Transkei it is used for stomach ache and given to chickens to prevent them from getting sick. In the Orient, this aloe is grown in domestic gardens as a convenient first-aid treatment for burn wounds and abrasions. In fact it was only after it was used to treat irradiation burn victims of Hiroshima that its healing properties received attention from the West. Extracts from the leaves have been widely investigated since then and shown significant wound healing, anti-bacterial, anti-ulcer, anti-inflammatory, anti-carcinogenic, hypoglycaemic and also alopoeic activity. The leaves have also been found to have purgative properties and the leaf sap is reported to relieve x-ray burns.
Growing Aloe arborescens
The krantz aloe is an easy and rewarding plant to grow, and is a popular garden plant in many countries. It enjoys full sun, well-drained, compost-enriched soil and can tolerate moderate frost but is sensitive to severe frost. It is fast-growing, and it will tolerate drought and neglect once established. It is grown mainly as an ornamental or as an accent plant, but is also an excellent and impenetrable hedge plant.
The krantz aloe is easily propagated from a branch or stem cut off, allowed to dry for a day or so until the wound has sealed, and then planted in well-drained soil or sand. They need not be rooted in any particular place and then transplanted, but can be placed directly into their permanent place in the garden. It is important to remember not to water the cuttings too heavily; overwatering may cause them to rot. This aloe can also be grown from seed, sown in spring. Seed should take three to four weeks to germinate, and the seedlings must be protected from frost.
Aloe arborescens hybridises readily with other aloes.
Van Wyk, B.E. & Smith, G. 1996. Guide to the Aloes of South Africa. Briza Publications, Pretoria.
Jackson, W.P.U. 1990. Origins and Meanings of Names of South African Plant Genera. U.C.T. Printing Dept., Cape Town.
Hutchings, Anne. 1996. Zulu Medicinal Plants, an inventory. University of Natal Press, Pietermaritzburg
Palmer, E. and Pitman, N. 1972. Trees of Southern Africa. A.A. Balkema, Cape Town.
van Wyk, B.E., Gericke, N. 2000. People's Plants. Briza Publications, Pretoria.
Leistner, O.A. (ed.). 2000 Seed plants of southern Africa: families and genera, Strelitzia 10. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria
Posted 04 December 2010 - 06:18 PM
Family : Asphodelaceae (asphodel family)
Common names : mountain aloe, snake aloe (Eng.); bergaalwee, slangaalwyn (Afr.)
Aloe broomii has a unique feature that no other aloe has - the flowers and buds cannot be seen when the flower is fully open because they are completely hidden by longer bracts. All that we can see of the flowers are the stamens and stigmas sticking out beyond the bracts.
Aloe broomii is a short-stemmed, robust aloe reaching a height of 1.5 m, including the inflorescence. It is usually solitary, but occasionally the heads divide to form groups of up to 3 rosettes. The leaves are green, with reddish brown teeth along the margins, and are arranged in a dense rosette.
The inflorescence is a densely flowered, un-branched (simple) raceme 1.0 - 1.5 m long. The flowers are pale greenish yellow and 20 - 25 mm long. The buds are completely hidden behind large bracts that are densely arranged like tiles on a roof. The flowers open in an approx. 100 mm wide band from the bottom of the inflorescence upwards, but all that can be seen of them are the stamens and stigmas that stick out beyond the bracts. It flowers during spring, and the seed ripens during summer.
There are two varieties of Aloe broomii var. broomii and var. tarkaensis. They are distinguished by the size of their floral bracts: var. tarkaensis has shorter bracts so that more of the flowers and buds are exposed; it also has broader leaves, and flowers in late summer.
Aloe broomii is not a threatened species, it is still common throughout its distribution range.
Distribution and habitat
This species has a wide distribution. It is found on rocky slopes in hilly parts of the central interior of southern Africa at altitudes of 1 000-2 000 m, from the top of the southern escarpment near Beaufort West in the Northern Cape, to near Tarkastad in the Eastern Cape to the Free State in the north, and in Lesotho. Rainfall in this region is mainly during summer, ranging from 300 to 500 mm per annum.
Derivation of name and historical aspects
Aloe broomii was collected by Dr R. Broom in 1905 at Pampoenpoort, which is between Carnarvon and Victoria West, so this wonderful species was named after the man who was the first to collect it. It earned the common name snake aloe because of its long, slender, snake-like inflorescence.
Aloes produce a lot of nectar that attracts bees, sunbirds and ants. Their light, winged seeds are dispersed by the wind. The seeds are often parasitized by very small maize and rice weevils ( Sitophilus spp.) that leave small round holes in the seeds.
Use and cultural aspects
In the Steynburg District farmers use the brownish fluid that comes from the boiled leaves of Aloe broomii to kill ticks, and as a disinfectant, an ear remedy for sheep, and a dip for cattle. A dessertspoonful of juice from the boiled leaves given to a horse makes the blood temporarily so bitter that any ticks on the animal fall off.
Growing Aloe broomii
Aloe broomii is an ideal water-wise plant, especially in arid and semi-arid regions, and it is frost resistant. It makes an excellent focal point and structural plant in landscaped gardens, and is a good choice for a rock garden.
Grow Aloe broomii in a sunny position in well-drained (sandy), fertile, soil. Add plenty of compost and bone meal to the planting hole and give the newly planted aloe a regular deep watering for the first few weeks - this will encourage strong root growth. As the plant gets established, reduce the amount of water and don't water at all during the rainy season. Established plants can take care of themselves as they store water in their leaves and are well adapted to an arid environment. Add a thick mulch of compost to both feed the plant and keep the roots cool. Mulch will also reduce evaporation and decrease weed growth.
Propagate Aloe broomii from fresh seed treated with the fungicide Apron C (a.i. metalaxyl) and sow in summer. Use a sterile, well-drained, sandy medium and cover lightly with a 2 mm layer of sand. Keep moist and place in a warm, sheltered position that receives good light but no direct sun, and with free movement of air. Germination is usually within 2-3 weeks during the warm summer months. When germinated, harden them off by gradually exposing them to direct sunlight. ~Censored~ out when the seedlings are 20-30 mm tall, pot them into a soil mixture consisting of 2 parts sand : 1 part loam : 1 part compost. Take care not to over-water the seedlings, too much water may cause them to rot.
Aloe broomii is susceptible to snout weevil and scale infestation, and to fungal infections. Snout weevils can be combated with Ripcord (a.i. cypermethrin) during late October and November when the eggs are laid. Scale insects can be treated with mineral oils Oleum or Alboleum. But biological control is best: make your garden attractive to wildlife, such as lizards, ladybirds and praying mantids - they prey on many garden pests, and will reduce the chances of pest infestations. A healthy, well-grown plant in the correct position has less chance of developing a fungal infection, but if the plant does get infected, treat it with a fungicide.
Werner Voigt and Ernst van Jaarsveld for helping with information on Aloe broomii in general and on its cultivation and propagation, and for sharing their field observations and experience; Alice Notten for helping with the writing of the article; Philip Nel for sharing his photograph of Aloe broomii in habitat.
References and further reading
Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds). 2003. Plants of southern Africa : an annotated checklist. Strelitzia 14. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
Jeppe, B. 1969. South African aloes. Parnell, Cape Town.
Pole Evans, I.B. 1936. Aloe broomii (Liliaceae). The Flowering Plants of South Africa 16: t. 605.
Reynolds, G.W. 1974. The aloes of South Africa. Balkema, Cape Town, Rotterdam.
Van Jaarsveld, E.J. 2000. Wonderful water-wise gardening. Tafelberg, Cape Town.
Van Wyk, B-E. & Smith, G. 1994. Guide to the aloes of South Africa. Briza Publications, Pretoria.
Posted 04 December 2010 - 06:38 PM
Family: Asteraceae (daisy family)
Common names: wild wormwood, African wormwood (Eng.); wilde-als (Afr.); umhlonyane (Xhosa); mhlonyane (Zulu); lengana (Tswana); zengana (Southern Sotho)
Named after the Greek goddess Artemis, this soft aromatic shrub is one of the most popular medicinal plants in South Africa. Easy to grow, Artemisia afra is an essential part of the herb garden, and with its silver-grey foliage it makes a striking display in any garden.
Artemisia afra grows in thick, bushy, slightly untidy clumps, usually with tall stems up to 2 m high, but sometimes as low as 0.6 m. The stems are thick and woody at the base, becoming thinner and softer towards the top. Many smaller side branches shoot from the main stems. The stems are ribbed with strong swollen lines that run all the way up. The soft leaves are finely divided, almost fern-like. The upper surface of the leaves is dark green whereas the undersides and the stems are covered with small white hairs, which give the shrub the characteristic overall grey colour. A. afra flowers in late summer, from March to May. The individual creamy yellow flowers are small (3-4 mm in diameter), nodding and crowded at the tips of the branches. Very typical of A. afra is the strong, sticky sweet smell that it exudes when touched or cut.
Derivation of the name:
The genus name Artemisia honours Artemis, the Greek goddess of hunting (Jackson 1990). Another interesting link to the name is Artemisia, the wife of the Greek/Persian King Mausolus, who ruled after his death in 353 BC. In his honour she built a magnificent tomb called the Mausoleum, known as one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World. She was also a famous botanical and medical researcher (Bremness 1988). The species name afra means from Africa.
Artemisia afra is a common species in South Africa with a wide distribution from the Cederberg Mountains in the Cape, northwards to tropical East Africa and stretching as far north as Ethiopia. In the wild it grows at altitudes between 20-2 440 m on damp slopes, along streamsides and forest margins. A. afra is the only indigenous species in this genus. A. vulgaris is naturalized in the Eastern Cape. It is an annual, indigenous to Europe, Iran, Siberia and North Africa, is commonly known as mugwort, and is described by Huxley et al. (1992) as 'a condiment with supposed magical properties'.
World-wide there are about 400 species of Artemisia, mainly from the northern hemisphere. Many of the other Artemisia species are aromatic perennials and are used medicinally. Lesley Bremness (1988) in The complete book of herbs, mentions that wormwood is included for its internal worm-expelling properties in the ancient Greek text of Dioscorides; Indians from New Mexico use similar varieties to treat bronchitis and colds; and the Chinese still use wormwood rolled up in the nostril to stop nosebleeds.
Economic and cultural value
Artemisia afra is one of the oldest and best known medicinal plants, and is still used effectively today in South Africa by people of all cultures. The list of uses covers a wide range of ailments from coughs, colds, fever, loss of appetite, colic, headache, earache, intestinal worms to malaria. Artemisia is used in many different ways and one of the most common practices is to insert fresh leaves into the nostrils to clear blocked nasal passages (Van Wyk et al. 1997). Another maybe not so common use is to place leaves in socks for sweaty feet (Watt & Breyer-Brandwijk 1962). The roots, stems and leaves are used in many different ways and taken as enemas, poultices, infusions, body washes, lotions, smoked, snuffed or drunk as a tea. A. afra has a very bitter taste and is usually sweetened with sugar or honey when drunk. Wilde-als brandy is a very popular medicine still made and sold today. Margaret Roberts (1990) lists many other interesting uses in her book, Indigenous healing plants, which includes the use of A. afra in natural insecticidal sprays and as a moth repellent. She also mentions that wilde-als with its painkilling and relaxing properties could be of real value to today's stressful society.
Growing Artemisia afra
Artemisia afra has traditionally been part of the herb garden, but this indigenous species is just as attractive in the garden used for display. Many of the exotic artemisias are popular garden plants. This tough and easy-to-grow species adds texture and colour with its fine, silver-grey foliage. At Kirstenbosch it is often used in herbaceous plantings mixed with other summer and autumn perennials like the wild sages Hemizygia obermeyerae, Orthosiphon labiatus, Leonotis leonurus and Syncolostemon densiflorus, which make very interesting combinations of foliage and flower colour throughout the summer.
Artemisia afra needs full sun and heavy pruning in winter to encourage new lush growth in spring. Actively growing in the summer months, it should be able to take quite low temperatures during the winter months. Fast-growing, established shrubs are very tough and will slowly spread to form thicker clumps. New plants can be propagated by division or from cuttings that root easily in spring and summer. Seed can be sown in spring or summer.
References and further reading
Bremness, L. 1988. The complete book of herbs. Dorling Kindersley, London.
Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. 2003. Plants of southern Africa: an annotated checklist. Strelitzia 14. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
Goldblatt, P. & Manning, J. 2000. Cape plants. A conspectus of the Cape flora of South Africa. Strelitzia 9. National Botanical Institute, Cape Town.
Hutchings, A. 1996. Zulu medicinal plants. University of Natal Press, Pietermaritzburg.
Huxley, A., Griffiths, M. & Levy, M. (eds). 1992. The new Royal Horticultural Society dictionary of gardening. Macmillan Press, London.
Jackson, W.P.U. 1990. Origins and meanings of names of South African plant genera. University of Cape Town.
Leistner, O.A. (ed.). 2000. Seed plants of southern Africa: families and genera. Strelitzia 10. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
Pooley, E. 2003. Mountain flowers. The Flora Publications Trust, Durban.
Roberts, M. 1990. Indigenous healing plants. Southern Book Publishers, Halfway House, South Africa.
Van Wyk, B., Van Oudtshoorn, B. & Gericke, N. 1997. Medicinal plants of South Africa. Briza Publications, Pretoria.
Watt, J. & Breyer-Brandwijk, M.G. 1962. Medicinal and poisonous plants of southern and eastern Africa. Livingstone, London.